INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR JUNIOR WINDOWS SYSETM ADMINISTRATORS

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These are regularly asking Interview Questions in Network and System Administrator Interviews, thses are very helpful to the freshers

What is an operating system?
Operating system works as an interpreter between computer Hardware and application. Operation system works as a user interface.
Types of Operating systems?
There are two types of operating systems
SOS: Simple Operating System as for example- Windows 95,98, ME
NOS: Network Operating System as for example- Windows NT, 2000, 2003.
What is server?
Server are computer that provides the services. As for Example:-
DNS Server
WINS Server
DHCP Server
RAS Server
VPN Server
What is RAS Server?
RAS stands for Remote Access Server. It is basically use for mobile user in the network. This server provides the access connectivity for mobile user. In this way all of the mobile users are connected to server through telephone line. This server also provides the connectivity between two more offices in the network.
What is VPN Server?
VPN Stands for Virtual Private Network. It is basically use for mobile user in the network. This server provides the remote access connectivity for mobile user. In this way all of the mobile users are connected to server through internet. This server also provides the connectivity between two or more office in the network. VPN is cost effective (No Costly).
What is IAS Server?
IAS stands for Internet Authentication Services. IAS server is also known as RADIUS Server. IAS Server provides the centralized management of multiple RAS & VPN Server in the Network. On this Server Remote Access Policy and Remote Access logging options are available.
FAT/NTFS?
There is major difference are available between FAT and NTFS file systems Such as:
FAT:

FAT Stands for File Allocation Table
There are three categories in FAT file system.

 FAT
 FAT-16
 FAT-32

In FAT Not up to folder level security is available
Compression option is not available
Encryption Option is not available
Disk Quota Option is not available
FAT supported by all of the Microsoft Based Operating Systems.

NTFS:

NTFS stands for New Technology File Systems
There are three categories in NTFS file systems

 NTFS 4.0- NT Operating Systems
 NTFS 5.0- 2000 Operating Systems
 NTFS 6.0- 2003 Operating Systems

In NTFS up to File level security is available
Compression option is available
Encryption option is available
Disk Quota Option is available
NTFS supported by only limited Microsoft Based Operating System

What is the difference between Windows NT/2000/2003?
There is many differences are available between Windows NT, 2000 and 2003 O/S, such as NT:

There is no active directory
There is no tree/forest hierarchical structure is available
There is no site relationship
There is no parent domain and child domain concepts are available in the network/
NT support NTFS 4.0 file system
NT support NTLM version 2 LAN Authentication Protocol
In NT by default no trust relationship are configured
In NT we will use System Policy
In NT specific Client site Operation system is available i.e. NT Workstation 4.0 Edition
In NT we will use Exchange 5.5 Server
In NT we can create only one way trust relationship inside the network

2000:

There is Active Directory
Tree/Forest Hierarchical Structure are available
There is Site Relationship is available
There is parent domain and child domain concept are available
2000 Support NTFS 5.0 file system
2000 Support Kerberos version 5.0 authentication protocol
In 2000 by default Two-way Trust Relationship are configured
In 2000 we will use Group Policy
2000 support maximum 32 Processor and 64 GB Ram
In 2000 Specific client site operating system is available i.e. 2000 Professional
In 2000 we will use Exchange 2000 server
In 2000 no stub zone is available in DNS
In 2000 Resultant Setup Policy is not available
In 2000 GPMC is not available
In 2000 Conditional forwarding option is not available
In 2000 Effective Permission option is not available
In 2000 only some Administrative Command Line Tools are available
Active Directory saved query option is not available
Shadow copy Option is not available in windows 2000 Operating System
ASR Option is not available in Windows 2000 operating System
In Windows 2000 we can create Maximum 1 DFS Root on a single DFS Server in the network.
In 2000 we can create two way trust relationship inside the network

2003:

There is Active Directory
Tree/Forest Hierarchical Structure are available
There is site relationship is available
There is parent domain and child domain concept are available
2003 support NTFS 6.0 File system
2003 support Kerberos 5.0 Authentication Protocol
In 2003 we will use group policy
2003 support maximum 64 Processor and 64 GB RAM
In 2003 no specific client site Operating System is available you can use either windows 2000 Professional either Windows

XP Professional in the network

In 2003 we will use Exchange 2003 Server
In 2003 Stub Zone is available in DNS
In 2003 GPMC is available
In 2003 Resultant Setup Policy is available
In 2003 Conditional Forwarding option is available
In 2003 Effective Permission option is available
Active Directory Saved Query option is available
Shadow Copy option is available in Windows 2003 Operating System
ASR Option is available in Windows 2003 Operating System
In Windows 2003, we can create more than 1 DFS Root on A single DFS Server in the Network
In 2003 we can create two way Trust Relationship inside the network

What is Active Directory?
Active Directory is the main concept of Windows 2000/2003 Network. it stores all of the information about the whole network such as users, printers, computers etc.
What is tree?
A group of domain is called tree and sharing a contiguous Name Space.
What is forest?
A group of tree is called forest and does not sharing a contiguous name space but sharing a common configuration (Schema).
Difference between D.C. and A.D.C.?
D.C. stands for Domain Controller and A.D.C. stands for Additional Domain Controller. A.D.C. is a backup of D.C. Only one different is available between D.C. and A.D.C. i.e. – Operation master Role. On D.C. all of five Operation Master Roles are available-

Schema Master
Domain Naming Master
RID Master
PDC Emulator
Infrastructure Master

But on A.D.C. only Three Operation Master Role are Available:

RID Master
PDC Emulator
Infrastructure Master

What is the benefit of Child Domain?
There are many benefits of Child Domain Such As:
Security Boundary
Administrative Overhead Low
Network Traffic Low
What is Group?
Group is a collection of user account. It provides the simplified administration in the network.
What is OU?
OU stands for Organizational Unit. On OU we define group Policy in the network. Group policy is basically assigned on active directory container i.e. Site, domain, OU. When ever we want some users then we put that user in the OU and assign the appropriate Group Policy on that OU.
What is Group Policy?
Group Policy provides the stream line access to all of the users in the network. Group policy is basically assigned on active directory container i.e. Site, Domain and O.U. When ever we want some users in the network do not use shut down the system,do not use run command, do not use Control Panel, then we put that user in the OU and assign the appropriate Group Policy on that OU.
Difference between permission, rights and policy?
Permission: permission is basically assigned on network resources as for example – file, folder, share folder, printer.
Right: Right is basically assign to users and groups.
Policy: Policy is basically assigned on active directory container i.e. – Site, Domain, OU.
What is ISA Server?
ISA stands for Internet Security Acceleration. ISA server provides the internet connectivity for all of the users in network ISA Server also works as proxy Server in the network. With the help of ISA Server Administrator can filtering a client request for a specific web site in the network.
What is Default Gateway?
Default Gateway is the IP address of router in the network. When ever any clients want to go to another network that query will forward to default gateway.
What is site?
A site is a geographical area where all of the domains are available. Site manages the replication traffic between two or more different sites in the network.
What is Operation Master Role?
Operation Master Role is available on Domain Controller in the Network. There are five types of operation master roles:-
Schema master
Domain Naming Master
RID Master
PDC Emulator
Infrastructure Master
Difference between Mixed Mode and Native Mode?
There are two types of domain mode:
Mixed Mode: In this mode NT, win 2000 and win 2003 D.C. are available.
Native Mode: there are two types of native mode.
Win 2000 Native Mode: In this mode win 2000 and win 2003 DC are available.
Win 2003 Native mode: in this mode only win 2003 DC are available.
What is SCSI?
SCSI stands for Small Computer System Interface. In SCSI the rate of data transmission is fast. SCSI Hard Disk Speed R.P.M.is fast in SCSI Data Transmission speed is 320 MBPS in the Network. In SCSI Controller We can connect Maximum 15 PhysicalDevices in the System.
What are A-Host Record and PTR Record?
A record is also called host record. This record is basically created in forward lookup Zone
PTR record is also called a Pointer record. This record is basically created in reverse lookup Zone
What is reservation?
Reservation is basically used in DHCP Server. When Ever we want this computer is always received this IP address from DHCP Server in the network, in the network, in that case we create a reservation in DHCP Server of that particular computer in the network.
IP Address Range/Classes?
There are two types of IP address:-
Class Full IP Address
Class Less IP Address
Class Full IP Address – There are five classes:

Class A – 0 – 126(127 is reserved for Loop back)
Class B – 128 – 191
Class C – 192 – 223
Class D – 224 – 239
Class E – 240 – 255

Difference between Hardware Router & Software Router?
Hardware Router: Hardware Router is a dedicated Router. It’s having a lot of feature such as Security, dedicated routing in the networking. As for Example Cisco Router.
Software Router: Software Router is not a dedicated router. It provides the different services also such as DNS Server, DHCP Server i.e. Windows Based Router.
Difference between Hardware Firewall and Software Firewall?
Hardware Firewall: It is a dedicated firewall. A lots of security features are available on hardware based firewall. As for
Example- Cisco Pix Firewall.
Software Firewall: It is a dedicated firewall. It provides the normal security in the network- Check Point.
What is Domain Controller?
D.C. stands for Domain Controller. It provides the centralized management of entire domain in the network. When ever we will install active directory database on a server side operating system, then after that system becomes a D.C. Domain controller manages all security related interaction between users and computers in the network.
What is B Router?

B Router stands for Bridge Router. We can say this is a layer three bridge that provides the communication between two or more different network ID.
What is a Bridge?
Bridge is a layer 2 network device that provides the communication within the same network ID. In bridge maximum 16 ports are available.
Difference between Gateway and Router?
Router works on same network architecture but Gateway works on different network architecture.
What is POP Server/SMTP Server?
POP Stands for Post Office Protocol. It is basically use for mail receiving purpose in the network.
SMTP Stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. It is basically use for sending a mail as well as receiving a mail in the network.
What is Active Directory Partitions?
Active Directory Partition is a logical Partition of Active Directory. This Partition is basically use for replication from D.C. to A.D.& D.C. to G.C.S. (Global Catalog Server) in the network. There are three Types of Active Directory Partition:
Schema Partition
Configuration Partition
Domain Partition
Types of Active Directory Partitions?
There are Three types of Active Directory Partitions:
Schema Partition
Configuration Partition
Domain Partition
What is the function of Ping Command?
Ping provides to check the Physical IP Connectivity between two or more devices in the network. Ping sends an ICMP request from source Computer to destination computer and destination computer sends an ICMP reply.
What are Broadcasting, Multicasting and unicasting?
Broadcasting – one to all
Multicasting – one to many not all
Unicasting – One to One.
What is Group Nesting?
When we add two or more Groups within a Single Group. It is called Group Nesting.
What is FIXMBR?
FIXMBR Repair the Master boot record of the Partition Boot Sector.
What is FIXBOOT?
FIXBOOT write a new partition boot sector on to the system partition.
What is SID?
SID stands for Security Identifier. Every object has a unique ID, it is called SID.
What is RADIUS Server?
RADIUS Stands for Remote Authentication Dial-in User Service, RADIUS Server Provides the Centralized Management of Multiple RAS & VPN Server in the network. On this Server Remote Access Policy and Remote Access Logging Options are available.
What is Trusting Domain?
In Trusting Domain Resources are available.
What is Trusted Domain?
In Trusted Domain User Account’s are available.
What is Microsoft Exchange Server?
Microsoft Exchange Server is Software that provides the services such as sending & receiving the Mail.
What is Printer?
Printer is a Software that Governing the print Device. There are two types of Printer:
Local Printer
Network Printer
What is Chatting?
Chatting is a Real Time Conversation between two or more people in the network.
What is Directory Services restore mode?
When our Active Directory Database is not working properly, then we restart the domain Controller and press f8 key. Then after Selecting the Directory services restore mode and then after restoring the active directory database from the last backup.
What is Normal Backup?
Just like a normal backup by default Backup.
What is incremental backup?
In incremental backup only incremental parts are backup not full backup.
What is differential backup?
In differential backup, we take full backup after the normal backup.
What is packet?
A packet is a logical grouping of information that includes a header which contains location information and user data.
What is forwarder?
It is basically use in DNS Server. When client query to the DNS Server. In that case if the DNS is having a best results then DNS Server give the best result. To the client computer in the network otherwise DNS

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