How to configure NAT(Network Address Translation) in Linux

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NAT(Network Address Translation)

 

Network Address Translation (NAT) is a way to map an entire network (or networks) to a single IP address. NAT is necessary when the number of IP addresses assigned to you by your Internet Service Provider is less than the total number of computers that you wish to provide Internet access for.

How NAT Works
WAN = eth0 with public IP 14.139.85.12
LAN = eth1 with private IP 10.0.0.1/ 255.0.0.0

When a client on the internal network contacts a machine on the Internet, it sends out IP packets destined for that machine. These packets contain all the addressing information necessary to get them to their destination. NAT is concerned with these pieces of information:

  • Source IP address (for example, 10.0.0.69)
  • Source TCP or UDP port (for example, 2132)

When the packets pass through the NAT gateway they will be modified so that they appear to be coming from the NAT gateway itself. The NAT gateway will record the changes it makes in its state table so that it can
i)reverse the changes on return packets and
ii) ensure that return packets are passed through the firewall and are not blocked.

 For example, the following changes might be made

  • Source IP: replaced with the external address of the gateway (for example, 14.139.85.12) 
  • Source port: replaced with a randomly chosen, unused port on the gateway (for example, 53136) 

Neither the internal machine nor the Internet host is aware of these translation steps. To the internal machine, the NAT system is simply an Internet gateway. To the Internet host, the packets appear to come directly from the NAT system; it is completely unaware that the internal workstation even exists. Translation of ICMP packets happens in a similar fashion but without the source port modification.

IP Forwarding

Since NAT is almost always used on routers and network gateways, it will probably be necessary to enable IP forwarding so that packets can travel between network interfaces on the OpenBSD machine. IP forwarding is enabled using the sysctl mechanism:

# sysctl net.inet.ip.forwarding=1 
# echo ‘net.inet.ip.forwarding=1’ >> /etc/sysctl.conf

Then you’ll need to configure iptables to forward the packets from your internal network, on /dev/eth1, to your external network on /dev/eth0. You do this will the following commands:

 

#iptables –table nat –append POSTROUTING –out-interface eth0 -j MASQUERADE

#iptables –append FORWARD –in-interface eth1 -j ACCEPT

 
Read also:How to configure Firewall service (iptables) in Linux

 Apply the configuration by using the following command
 
 # systemctl restart iptables
 
 

In clients set the gateway ip address is your server internal address i.e 10.0.0.1

Read also: IP addressing

 


Related articals 

How to configure networking in linux for beginners – I

How to configure networking in linux for beginners – II

How to configure networking in linux for beginners – III

 

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